Zirconium CVD Precursors

Halide precursors (HVPE)

Zirconium Tetrachloride ZrCl4

  • Melting point 437°C (21.8 atm)
  • Sublimation temperature 315°C (1 atm)
  • Condensed phase density  2.8g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass  233.04g/mol
ZrCl4 saturated vapor pressure
Zirconium Tetrachloride saturated vapor pressure

References

Tangri, R. P., and D. K. Bose. “Vapour pressure measurement of zirconium chloride and hafnium chloride by the transpiration technique.” Thermochimica acta 244 (1994): 249-256.

Hafnium CVD Precursors

Halide precursors (HVPE)

Hafnium Tetrachloride HfCl4

  • Melting point 432°C (vapor pressure 44.4 atm)
  • Sublimation temperature 315°C (1 atm)
  • Condensed phase density  3.86 g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass  320.3 g/mol
HfCl4 saturated vapor pressure
Hafnium Tetrachlodire saturated vapor pressure

References

Tangri, R. P., and D. K. Bose. “Vapour pressure measurement of zirconium chloride and hafnium chloride by the transpiration technique.” Thermochimica acta 244 (1994): 249-256.

Gallium CVD precursors

Halide precursors (HVPE)

Gallium Trichloride GaCl3

  • Melting point 78°C
  • Boiling point 201°C
  • Condensed phase density 2.47g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass  176.08 g/mol
GaCl3 saturated vapor pressure
Saturated vapor pressure of Gallium Trichloride (GaCl3)

Gallium Tribromide GaBr3

  • Melting point 122°C
  • Boiling point 279°C
  • Condensed phase density  3.69g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass  309.4g/mol

Gallium Triiodide GaI3

  • Melting point  210°C
  • Boiling point  346°C
  • Condensed phase density  4.15g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass   450.4g/mol

Metallic gallium chlorination

Gallium chlorides can be produced inside a reactor, by passing dry hydrogen chloride (HCl) or Chlorine (Cl2) gas over a boat with liquid gallium. The composition of produced chlorides mainly depends on chlorination temperature – at temperatures below ~350°C Gallium trichloride GaCl3 and it’s dimer Ga2Cl6 are main reaction products. At higher temperatures gallium monochloride GaCl becomes dominant.

Ga chlorination vapor composition
Main products of gallium chlorination with Hydrogen Chloride (HCl)

Aluminum CVD precursors

Halide precursors (HVPE)

Aluminum Trichloride AlCl3

  • Melting point 192.6°C
  • Boiling point 182.7°C (sublimes)
  • Condensed phase density 2.44 g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass 133.34 g/mol
AlCl3 saturated vapor pressure
Saturated vapor pressure ofAlCl3

Aluminum Tribromide AlBr3

  • Melting point 98°C
  • Boiling point 255°C
  • Condensed phase density 3.01 g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass 266.69 g/mol

Aluminum Triiodide AlI3

  • Melting point  191°C
  • Boiling point 382°C
  • Condensed phase density 3.98g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass 407.69 g/mol

Metallic aluminum chlorination

Aluminum chlorides can be produced inside a reactor, by passing dry hydrogen chloride (HCl) or Chlorine (Cl2) gas over a boat with aluminum pellets. The composition of produced chlorides mainly depends on chlorination temperature – at temperatures below 900°C aluminum trichloride AlCl3 and it’s dimer Al2Cl6 are main reaction products. At higher temperatures aluminum monochloride AlCl becomes dominant.

Aluminum chlorination products
Main products of aluminum chlorination with Hydrogen Chlodire (HCl)