Nitrogen CVD precursors

Ammonia NH3

  • Melting point -77.75°C
  • Boiling point -33.42°C
  • Critical temperature 132.3°C
  • Critical pressure 11.3 MPa
  • Molar mass  17.03 g/mol
Ammonia saturated vapor pressure
Ammonia saturated vapor pressure

Hydrazine N2H4

  • Melting point 2°C
  • Boiling point 113.5°C
  • Condensed phase density 1.008g/cm3 (at 20°C)
  • Molar mass 32.05 g/mol
Hydrazine saturated vapor pressure
Hydrazine saturated vapor pressure

Stull, D. R. (1947). Inorganic compounds. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 39(4), 540-550.

Scott, D. W., Oliver, G. D., Gross, M. E., Hubbard, W. N., & Huffman, H. M. (1949). Hydrazine: Heat capacity, heats of fusion and vaporization, vapor pressure, entropy and thermodynamic functions. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 71(7), 2293-2297.

Silicon CVD precursors

Halide Precursors

Silicon Tetrachloride SiCl4

  • Melting point -68.9°C
  • Boiling point 57.0°C
  • Condensed phase density 1.48g/cm3 (at 20°C)
  • Molar mass 169.9 g/mol
SiCl4 saturated vapor pressure
SiCl4 saturated vapor pressure

Silicon Tetrafluoride SiF4

  • Melting point -86.8°C
  • Boiling point -65.0°C
  • Critical temperature -14.15°C
  • Critical pressure 3.75 MPa
  • Molar mass 169.9 g/mol

 

Hexachlorodisilane Si2Cl6

  • Melting point -1°C
  • Boiling point 144°C
  • Condensed phase density 1.56g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass 268.9 g/mol
Si2Cl6 saturated vapor pressure
Hexachlorodisilane (Si2Cl6) saturated vapor pressure

 

Stull, D. R. (1947). Inorganic compounds. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 39(4), 540-550.

 

Boron CVD precursors

Halide precursors

Boron Trifluoride BF3

  • Melting point  -128°C
  • Boiling point -100°C
  • Critical temperature -12.3°C
  • Critical pressure 4.99 MPa
  • Molar mass 67.81 g/mol

Boron Trifluoride BCl3

  • Melting point  -107°C
  • Boiling point  12.5°C
  • Critical temperature 178.8°C
  • Critical pressure 3.87 MPa
  • Molar mass 117.17 g/mol
Boron Trichloride (BCl3) saturated vapor pressure
Saturated vapor pressure of Boron Trichloride BCl3

 

Chemical vapor deposition reactions

Pure elements

  • Transition metal film:  Ti, Mo, W, Nb, Re, Ta, Zr, Hf
  • Non-metal film: B, C, Si, Ge

Binary compounds

  • Carbides: B4C, SiC, TiC, WC, HfC, NbC, TaC, VC, ZrC
  • Silicides: MoSi2, WSi2, TiSi2, V3Si, Nb3Si
  • Nitrides: BN, AlN, GaN, TiN, VN, ZrN, HfN, TaN, NbN, Si3N4, Ge3N4, FexN
  • Oxides: Al2O3, Ga2O3, SiO2, HfO2, Ta2O5, Nb2O5, SnO2, TiO2, ZrO2
  • Borides:  TiB2, ZrB2, HfB2
  • Chalcogenides:  MoS2, WS2, MoSe2, WSe2

Vanadium CVD precursors

Halide precursors

Vanadium pentafluoride VF5

  • Melting point 19.5°C
  • Boiling point 48°C
  • Condensed phase density 2.48 g/cm3  (at 20°C)
  • Molar mass   145.9 g/mol
Saturated vapor pressure of VF5
Saturated vapor pressure of Vanadium Pentafluoride VF5

Vanadium tetrachloride VCl4

  • Melting point -20.5°C
  • Boiling point 153°C
  • Condensed phase density 1.82 g/cm3  (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass   192.75 g/mol
Saturated vapor pressure of VCl4
Saturated vapor pressure of Vanadium Tetrachloride VCl4

 

 

Clark, H. C., & Emeléus, H. J. (1957). 406. Some physical and chemical properties of vanadium pentafluoride. Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), 2119-2122.

Trevorrow, L. E., Fischer, J., & Steunenberg, R. K. (1957). The Preparation and Properties of Vanadium Pentafluoride1. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 79(19), 5167-5168.

Cavell, R. G., & Clark, H. C. (1963). DENSITY, VISCOSITY, AND SURFACE TENSION OF VANADIUM PENTAFLUORIDE. JOURNAL OF THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY, (AUG), 4261.

Tantalum CVD Precursors

Halide Precursors

Tantalum Pentafluoride TaF5

  • Melting point 96°C
  • Boiling point 229.2°C
  • Condensed phase density  4.98 g/cm3 (at 15°C),  3.88 g/cm3 (at melting point)
  • Molar mass   275.9 g/mol
Saturated vapor pressure over liquid TaF5
Saturated vapor pressure over liquid TaF5

Tantalum Pentachloride TaCl5

  • Melting point 216.5°C
  • Boiling point 236°C
  • Condensed phase density 3.68  g/cm3 (at 28°C), 2.68  g/cm3 (at melting point)
  • Molar mass  358.2  g/mol
Saturated vapor pressure over TaCl5
Saturated vapor pressure over TaCl5

Fairbrother, F., Grundy, K. H., & Thompson, A. (1965). 121. The halides of niobium and tantalum. Part VIII. The densities, viscosities, and self-ionisation of niobium and tantalum pentafluorides. Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), 761-765.

Fairbrother, F., & Frith, W. C. (1951). 675. The halides of niobium (columbium) and tantalum. Part III. The vapour pressures of niobium (columbium) and tantalum pentafluorides. Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), 3051-3056.

Alexander, K. M., & Fairbrother, F. (1949). S 48. The halides of columbium (niobium) and tantalum. Part I. The vapour pressures of columbium (niobium) and tantalum pentachlorides and pentabromides. Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), S223-S227.

Niobium CVD Precursors

Halide precursors

Niobium Fluoride NbF5

  • Melting point 78.9°C
  • Boiling point 233.3°C
  • Condensed phase density 3.29g/cm3 (at 25°C), 2.69g/cm3 (at melting point)
  • Molar mass   187.9g/mol
Saturated vapor pressure over solid NbF5
Saturated vapor pressure over solid NbF5
Saturated vapor pressure over liquid NbF5
Saturated vapor pressure over liquid NbF5

Niobium Chloride NbCl5

  • Melting point 205°C
  • Boiling point 247.5°C
  • Condensed phase density 2.75 g/cm3 (at 25°C), 2.07 g/cm3 (at melting point)
  • Molar mass  270.2 g/mol
Saturated vapor pressure over NbCl5
Saturated vapor pressure over NbCl5

Fairbrother, F., & Frith, W. C. (1951). 675. The halides of niobium (columbium) and tantalum. Part III. The vapour pressures of niobium (columbium) and tantalum pentafluorides. Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), 3051-3056.

Junkins, J. H., Farrar Jr, R. L., Barber, E. J., & Bernhardt, H. A. (1952). Preparation and Physical Properties of Niobium Pentafluoride1. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 74(14), 3464-3466.

Fairbrother, F., Grundy, K. H., & Thompson, A. (1965). 121. The halides of niobium and tantalum. Part VIII. The densities, viscosities, and self-ionisation of niobium and tantalum pentafluorides. Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), 761-765.

Alexander, K. M., & Fairbrother, F. (1949). Vapor Pressures of TaCl5, TaBr5, TaI5, NbCl5, NbBrs. J. Chem. Soc, 2472, 223.

Alexander, K. M., & Fairbrother, F. (1949). S 48. The halides of columbium (niobium) and tantalum. Part I. The vapour pressures of columbium (niobium) and tantalum pentachlorides and pentabromides. Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), S223-S227.

Molybdenum CVD Precursors

Halide precursors (HVPE)

Molybdenum Chloride MoCl5

  • Melting point 194°C
  • Boiling point 268°C
  • Condensed phase density 2.925g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass  273.2 g/mol
MoCl5 saturated vapor pressure
MoCl5 saturated vapor pressure

Molybdenum Fluoride MoF6

  • Melting point 17.5°C
  • Boiling point 35°C
  • Condensed phase density 2.551g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass  209.9 g/mol
MoF6 saturated vapor pressure
MoF6 saturated vapor pressure

Shchukarev, S. A.; Suvorov, A. V. (Vestn. Leningr. Univ. Fiz. Khim. 16 No. 1 [1961]87/99, 89; C.A. 1961 16117)

Ruff, O., & Ascher, E. (1929). Fluorides of the eighth group of the periodic system. Z. Anorg. Allgem. Chem, 183, 193-213.

Cady, G. H., & Hargreaves, G. B. (1961). 305. The vapour pressures of some heavy transition-metal hexafluorides. Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), 1563-1568.

Tungsten CVD Precursors

Halide precursors (HVPE)

Tungsten Hexachloride WCl6

  • Melting point 281.5°C
  • Boiling point 348°C
  • Condensed phase density 3.52g/cm3 (at 25°C)
  • Molar mass 396.57 g/mol
WCl6 saturated vapor pressure
Saturated vapor pressure of Tungsten Hexachloride (WCl6)

Tungsten Hexafluoride WF6

  • Melting point 2.5°C
  • Boiling point 17.3°C
  • Condensed phase density 4.56 g/cm3 (solid T<-8.5°C), 3.99 g/cm3 (solid at 0°C), 3.4 g/cm3 (liquid at 20°C)
  • Molar mass 297.84 g/mol

 

Stevenson, F. D., Wicks, C. E., & Block, F. E. (1963). Vapor pressure of tungsten (VI) chloride and hafnium (IV) iodide by a metal diaphragm technique (No. BM-RI-6367). Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (USA). Albany Metallurgy Research Center.

Siegel, S., & Northrop, D. A. (1966). X-ray diffraction studies of some transition metal hexafluorides. Inorganic Chemistry, 5(12), 2187-2188

Alyea, E. D., Gallagher, L. B., Mullens, J. H., & Teem, J. M. (1957). A WF6 bubble chamber. Il Nuovo Cimento (1955-1965), 6(6), 1480-1488.